After the Genocide in Rwanda
Tuesday, September 15th
In 1994, Rwanda’s population of 7 million were composed of three ethnic groups: Hutu (approximately 85 percent), Tutsi (14 percent) and Twa (1 percent). Between April and July 1994 (a span of 100 days), at least 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutus were slaughtered when a Hutu extremist-led government launched a plan to murder the country’s entire Tutsi minority and any others who opposed the government’s policies.
The United Nations Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) to “prosecute persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda”. The ICTR was located in Arusha, Tanzania.
About the speaker
Barbara Mulvaney was a Senior Trial Attorney at the ICTR and headed the Théoneste Bagosora trial team. Bagosora is identified as having played a significant role in organizing the Rwandan genocide.
Barbara Mulvaney will discuss her role in the ICTR, how she became a prosecutor in the international tribunal, and ultimately, whether Rwanda and the international community provided justice to victims of the genocide.
How to attend
It is free to attend Young Global Citizens, however, you must be a current high school student. Registration is now open!
Attendance will be capped at 95 students, on a first-come, first-serve basis. There will also be a waiting list, with students notified the afternoon of the livestream if they’ve been accepted.
Below are some suggested resources to complement September’s Young Global Citizen meeting, After the Genocide in Rwanda. These are suggested resources; participants are not required to view or read any of these resources in order to attend the session. Some of the films are available for free on YouTube or PBS, while others may require a rental fee or subscription to a streaming service (Netflix, etc.). It is ultimately left to each student/teacher/class to access the films.
To access information about the film and/or article that interests you, click on the title and the description will expand. Note, the titles in the descriptions are hyperlinks and will take you to the film and/or article
Sometimes in April (drama) (PG-13)
The story revolves around Augustin Muganza, a Hutu who struggles to find closure after bearing witness to the killing of close to a million people in 100 days while becoming divided by politics and losing some of their own family. The plot intersperses between the genocide in 1994, and April 2004, when Augustin is invited by his brother, Honoré Butera, to visit him as he stands trial for his involvement in the genocide
Rwanda – 25 years after the genocide (Deutsche Welle documentary) (PG)
In 1994, Hutu militias slaughtered over 800,000 people, most of them from the Tutsi minority. Alain Gauthier and his wife Dafroza are trying to bring those hiding in Europe to justice.
Dafroza is Rwandan, and lost her mother in the genocide 25 years ago. Back then, the international community looked on as the Hutu majority murdered hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and regime critics in just a few weeks. Many survivors still feel forsaken. The wheels of justice have been turning slowly, leaving many perpetrators unpunished to this day. Alain and Dafroza Gauthier won’t stand for it: They want to track down the murderers who managed to flee to Europe. France, in particular, was long deemed a safe haven because it was the only country that blocked extradition requests to Rwanda.
So far, only three perpetrators have been convicted in France – a total that Alain Gauthier finds completely unacceptable. He suspects there are many other Rwandans living in France who are guilty of taking part in the massacres. Alain Gauthier and his Collective of Civil Plaintiffs for Rwanda (CPCR) have filed some 40 complaints in the last twenty years. But their fight for justice is a race against time. With each passing year, it becomes more and more difficult to find reliable witnesses.
Worse than War (documentary) (PG-13)
WORSE THAN WAR documents Daniel Jonah Goldhagen’s (former professor of political science at Harvard University) travels, teachings, and interviews in nine countries around the world, bringing viewers on an unprecedented journey of insight and analysis. He speaks with victims, perpetrators, witnesses, politicians, diplomats, historians, humanitarian aid workers, and journalists, all with the purpose of explaining and understanding genocide and how to finally stop it.
In Rwanda, perpetrators of genocide speak candidly about their participation in mass murders, and Minister of Justice Tharcisse Karugarama discusses the perpetrators’ willingness, the world’s failure, and how we can prevent other countries from suffering the same fate. In Guatemala, Goldhagen explores the concept of “overkill” with the country’s leading forensic pathologist, and in an extraordinary interview, he confronts former President José Efraín Ríos Montt, the person in power during the genocide of Maya in the early 1980s. In Bosnia, he attends the annual commemoration of the massacre at Srebrenica, the worst mass-killing in Europe since World War II, and has a candid discussion with the nation’s president Haris Silajdžić about his efforts to convince U.S. and world leaders to intervene when it became apparent that “ethnic cleansing” was underway. And in Ukraine, Goldhagen returns with his father Erich (also a scholar of the Holocaust) to the town where Erich was nearly killed during the Holocaust.
Goldhagen also conducts probing and revealing interviews with Madeleine Albright, former U.S. Secretary of State; Francis Deng, UN Special Advisor for the Prevention of Genocide; and Clint Williamson, U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues.
- What is Transitional Justice? | International Center for Transitional Justice
- Challenges of Transitional Justice in Rwanda | Africa Portal
- Rwanda genocide: International Criminal Tribunal closes | BBC
- Rwanda’s gacaca courts are hailed as a post-genocide success. The reality is more complicated. | The Washington Post
- Rwanda: Mixed Legacy for Community-Based Genocide Courts | Human Rights Watch
- Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter | BBC
- Rwanda’s Himmler: the man behind the genocide | The Guardian
- ‘Music to kill to’: Rwandan genocide survivors remember RTLM | Al Jazeera
- In Rwanda, We Know All About Dehumanizing Language | The Atlantic